Fungus gnat is under Diptera Order. The name of “gnat” is applied to certain small flies and fungi serves as their major food for larvae.
This fly can cause nuisance in urban area. They infest potted plants and enter the structure when the plants are placed inside. It occurs worldwide.
Biology & Life Cycle
Eggs are usually laid in fungi, on or under bark, on cave walls, and in the nests. They also breed in moist and decaying materials inside over-watered potted plants. The larvae mostly eat fungi and are found inside fungi, in dead wood and decaying vegetation, or under bark. Some larvae eat tiny insects and worms. Pupation occurs inside larval food or in a silk cocoon and adult emerges about 3 days. Adult feeds on fungus, mold and decaying plant material. They are found in the soil of over-watered house plants or soil containing organic material. Fungus gnat may be found in others places where excess moisture allows fungus to grow.
Small and mosquito-like, these flies are generally brown, black or yellowish. However, some species may be brightly colored. The thorax is characteristically humped, and the legs are long and slender. Their identifying features include elongated coxae (first segment on the leg) and a branched wing vein in the center of the wing.
Habitat & Food Sources
Adults have lapping mouthparts capable of and rasping (scarifying) because of spines covering the mouthpart (labella). Larvae develop in a variety of habitats such as decaying plant and animal matter and plant rootlets, particularly in freshly disturbed, well drained and aerated sandy soils. Female flies attack animals while males are attracted to flowers. Adult females can be collected with a fine-mesh aerial net by swinging it around ones head while walking through infested areas.
Destroy and eliminate the breeding source. Make sure all the breeding area is inspected. Check moist and damp area as the fungi is their larvae food.
To manage the fungus gnat in potted plants, use the bacterial insecticide Bacillus thuringiensis. Insecticides, such as pyrethrins and tetramethrin temporary reduce the numbers of adults that are presents. This is only useful once the breeding site is eliminated. Olyset® Net which is recommended by no less than WHO is highly effective protect your family against all disease-carrying mosquitoes and airborne insects.